Here is a list of common abbreviations in the field of quality management and Six Sigma, organized alphabetically:
5S: A lean methodology for organizing and maintaining a clean, efficient, and safe work environment, which stands for Sort, Set in Order, Shine, Standardize, and Sustain.
8D: A problem-solving methodology consisting of 8 disciplines (or steps).
AIAG: Automotive Industry Action Group, a global association of companies in the automotive industry that develops and promotes best practices in quality, environmental management, and supply chain management.
APQP: Advanced Product Quality Planning, a structured process for defining and implementing the steps necessary to ensure the quality of a new product.
ASQ: American Society for Quality, a professional organization for quality professionals.
CAPA: Corrective and Preventive Action, a process for identifying and addressing problems or issues in a process.
CB: Certification Body, an organization that performs audits and issues certifications to organizations that meet specified standards.
CI: Continuous Improvement, a philosophy of ongoing, incremental improvement in the quality of products, processes, and services.
CMM: Capability Maturity Model, a framework for assessing the maturity of an organization's processes and systems.
COQ: Cost of Quality, the total cost of all activities related to the quality of a product or service, including prevention, appraisal, and failure costs.
COPQ: Cost of Poor Quality, the cost of defects and nonconformities in a process.
Cpk: Process Capability Index, a measure of the ability of a process to produce parts within specification limits.
CQI: Continuous Quality Improvement, a philosophy of ongoing, incremental improvement in the quality of products, processes, and services.
CTQ: Critical to Quality, a term used to describe characteristics of a product or process that are most important to the customer.
DFSS: Design for Six Sigma, a methodology for designing processes, products, and services with the goal of achieving Six Sigma quality levels.
DMAIC: A problem-solving methodology used in Six Sigma, which stands for Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control.
DOE: Design of Experiments, a statistical method for determining the relationship between factors affecting a process and the output of that process.
DPMO: Defects per Million Opportunities, a measure of process quality used in Six Sigma.
DPU: Defects per Unit, a measure of process quality.
FAI: First Article Inspection, a process verifying that a new or modified production part meets specified requirements.
FMEA: Failure Mode and Effects Analysis, a tool used to identify potential failure modes in a process and assess the risk associated with each failure mode.
GMP: Good Manufacturing Practices, a set of guidelines for the production and quality control of pharmaceutical and medical products.
GR&R: Gage Repeatability and Reproducibility, a method for evaluating the precision of measurement systems.
IATF: International Automotive Task Force, a group of automotive industry organizations that develops and publishes quality management standards.
ISO: International Organization for Standardization, a non-governmental organization that develops and publishes international standards.
JIT: Just-In-Time, a lean manufacturing strategy for reducing waste and improving efficiency by producing and delivering products as needed.
KPI: Key Performance Indicator, a metric used to measure the performance of an organization or process against a set of predefined targets.
LCL: Lower Control Limit, a statistical measure used to monitor a process.
LSS: Lean Six Sigma, a combination of lean manufacturing and Six Sigma principles and tools for continuous improvement.
MBNQA: Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award, a prestigious award presented by the U.S. government to recognize excellence in quality management.
MSA: Measurement System Analysis, a tool used to evaluate the accuracy and precision of measurement systems.
MTBF: Mean Time Between Failures, a measure of the average time between failures of a piece of equipment.
MTTF: Mean Time to Failure, a measure of the average time it takes for a piece of equipment to fail.
MTTR: Mean Time to Repair, a measure of the average time it takes to repair a malfunctioning piece of equipment.
NCR: Nonconformance Report, a document used to report and track deviations from specified requirements or standards.
OEE: Overall Equipment Effectiveness, a measure of the efficiency and utilization of a manufacturing process.
OFAT: One-Factor-at-a-Time, a method of testing the effect of individual variables on a process or system.
PDCA: A continuous improvement methodology used in lean management, which stands for Plan, Do, Check, Act.
PPAP: Production Part Approval Process, a standardized process for obtaining approval of new or modified production parts and processes.
Ppk: Process Performance Index, a measure of the capability of a process to produce parts within specification limits.
QA: Quality Assurance, a set of activities and processes designed to ensure the quality of a product or service.
QC: Quality Control, a process for verifying that a product or service meets specified quality standards.
QFD: Quality Function Deployment, a tool used to translate customer requirements into specific design and production requirements. (also called: House of Quality)
QMS: Quality Management System, a system used to plan, implement, review, and improve the processes and activities that contribute to the quality of a product or service.
RCA: Root Cause Analysis, a process for identifying the underlying cause of a problem or issue.
RPN: Risk Priority Number, a rating used in FMEA to prioritize risks in a process or system.
SIPOC: A tool used to map out the suppliers, inputs, process, outputs, and customers (SIPOC) aspects of a process.
SMED: Single Minute Exchange of Dies, a lean manufacturing technique for reducing the time it takes to switch between different products or processes.
SPC: Statistical Process Control, a method of using statistical analysis to monitor and control a process to ensure it is operating within specified limits.
SQC: Statistical Quality Control, a statistical analysis method to monitor and control a process to ensure it is operating within specified limits.
TOC: Theory of Constraints, a management philosophy focused on identifying and removing constraints that limit the performance of a system.
TPM: Total Productive Maintenance, a maintenance strategy involving all employees in continuously improving equipment effectiveness.
TQM: Total Quality Management, a management philosophy focused on continuous improvement and customer satisfaction.
UCL: Upper Control Limit, a statistical measure used to monitor a process.
VOC: Voice of the Customer, a term used to refer to the needs and requirements of customers as they relate to a product or service.
VSM: Value Stream Mapping, a tool used to visualize the flow of materials and information in a process, with the goal of identifying waste and opportunities for improvement.
V&V: Verification and Validation, a process for evaluating the quality and performance of a product or system.
WI: Work Instruction, a document that provides detailed instructions for performing a specific task or process.