Strategic, Tactical and Operational Planning

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The Strategic Plan is a document that describes the goals of an organization. It also provides guidance for planning activities to achieve those goals. The plan can be used by management as well as employees.

Tactical plans are usually short-term in nature. They provide direction on how to accomplish specific objectives within a specified time frame. A tactical plan may include detailed schedules or instructions on how to complete tasks.

Operational Plans describe what will happen during a given period of time. These plans are often referred to as operational plans because they define the day-to-day operations of an organization.

Flashcards

Strategic, Tactical and Operational Planning

Characteristics Strategic Tactical Operational
Time Horizon Long-term (3-5 years or more) Medium-term (1-2 years) Short-term (daily to 1 year)
Focus Direction and vision Implementation of strategy Execution of tactical plans
Scope Entire organization or major business units Departments, divisions or smaller business units Functional areas, teams or individuals
Examples Developing a new product line, expanding into new markets Reorganizing a department, streamlining a process Hiring and training employees, scheduling production runs
Frequency of Review Periodic (annually or bi-annually) Ongoing (quarterly or semi-annually) Frequent (daily or weekly)
Level of Detail High-level, broad goals Detailed, specific objectives Very specific, granular tasks
Involvement of Leadership Top-level leadership Middle management Lower-level management and employees
Level of Risk High, strategic decisions with long-term implications Moderate, tactical decisions with shorter-term implications Low, operational decisions with immediate impact
Degree of Flexibility Low, as strategic decisions may require long-term commitments Moderate, as tactical decisions can be adjusted as needed High, as operational decisions may require immediate adjustments
Level of Coordination High, as decisions impact the entire organization Moderate, as decisions impact specific departments or units Low, as decisions impact specific tasks or activities

 






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