The Strategic Plan is a document that describes the goals of an organization. It also provides guidance for planning activities to achieve those goals. The plan can be used by management as well as employees.
Tactical plans are usually short-term in nature. They provide direction on how to accomplish specific objectives within a specified time frame. A tactical plan may include detailed schedules or instructions on how to complete tasks.
Operational Plans describe what will happen during a given period of time. These plans are often referred to as operational plans because they define the day-to-day operations of an organization.
Strategic, Tactical and Operational Planning
|Time Horizon||Long-term (3-5 years or more)||Medium-term (1-2 years)||Short-term (daily to 1 year)|
|Focus||Direction and vision||Implementation of strategy||Execution of tactical plans|
|Scope||Entire organization or major business units||Departments, divisions or smaller business units||Functional areas, teams or individuals|
|Examples||Developing a new product line, expanding into new markets||Reorganizing a department, streamlining a process||Hiring and training employees, scheduling production runs|
|Frequency of Review||Periodic (annually or bi-annually)||Ongoing (quarterly or semi-annually)||Frequent (daily or weekly)|
|Level of Detail||High-level, broad goals||Detailed, specific objectives||Very specific, granular tasks|
|Involvement of Leadership||Top-level leadership||Middle management||Lower-level management and employees|
|Level of Risk||High, strategic decisions with long-term implications||Moderate, tactical decisions with shorter-term implications||Low, operational decisions with immediate impact|
|Degree of Flexibility||Low, as strategic decisions may require long-term commitments||Moderate, as tactical decisions can be adjusted as needed||High, as operational decisions may require immediate adjustments|
|Level of Coordination||High, as decisions impact the entire organization||Moderate, as decisions impact specific departments or units||Low, as decisions impact specific tasks or activities|