# Guide to the 40 TRIZ Principles (Table Format)

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TRIZ (Theory of Inventive Problem Solving) is a systematic methodology for solving complex problems and generating innovative solutions. Developed by Genrich Altshuller and his colleagues in the former Soviet Union, TRIZ is based on the analysis of thousands of patents and scientific discoveries. At the heart of TRIZ are the 40 inventive principles, which serve as a framework to help identify and overcome obstacles in the problem-solving process. The below table lists down the 40 TRIZ principles and provides a brief description for each.

Principle Number Name Description
1 Segmentation Divide an object into independent parts, increase the degree of fragmentation, or create a modular structure.
2 Taking Out Separate a disturbing part or property from an object or system, or single out the only necessary part.
3 Local Quality Change an object's structure from uniform to non-uniform or introduce changes to external environments or influences.
4 Asymmetry Change the shape of an object from symmetrical to asymmetrical, or change the parameters of an object to make them unequal.
5 Merging Combine objects, operations, or functions that share similar properties or serve similar purposes.
6 Universality Make an object or system perform multiple functions, eliminating the need for additional components.
7 Nesting Place one object inside another, or use the space within an object to store another object.
8 Counterweight Balance the weight of an object with another object, or use the environment to provide counterbalance.
9 Preliminary Anti-Action Perform an action that opposes a harmful or unwanted effect before it occurs.
10 Preliminary Action Perform required changes to an object or system in advance, or make an object ready to perform a specific action.
11 Beforehand Cushioning Prepare an object or system to prevent future harm, or compensate for low reliability with emergency measures.
12 Equipotentiality Arrange objects in a system to minimize energy loss, or eliminate the need for leveling.
13 Inversion Invert the action(s) used to solve a problem, or use opposite or reverse actions to achieve a desired outcome.
14 Spheroidality Replace linear parts or surfaces with curved ones, or use rollers, balls, or spirals to achieve a desired outcome.
15 Dynamics Introduce adjustable or adaptable parts to an object or system, or allow elements to change their position, shape, or function.
16 Partial or Excessive Action Perform more or less of an action than necessary, or introduce a temporary imbalance in a system.
17 Another Dimension Change the position, orientation, or shape of an object to improve its function or reduce harm.
18 Mechanical Vibration Introduce vibration or oscillation to an object or system, or use the frequency or amplitude of existing vibrations to achieve a desired outcome.
19 Periodic Action Replace continuous action with periodic or pulsed action, or introduce breaks between periods of action.
20 Continuity of Useful Action Maximize the useful functions performed by an object or system, or eliminate idle or unproductive periods.
21 Skipping Perform a harmful or non-useful action at a high speed to minimize its negative effects.
22 Blessing in Disguise Use a harmful factor to achieve a positive effect, or eliminate a harmful factor by combining it with another harmful factor.
23 Feedback Introduce feedback loops to an object or system, or use feedback to improve or optimize a process.
24 Intermediary Use an intermediary object or substance to perform a specific action, or protect an object from harmful effects.
25 Self-Service Make an object or system serve itself, or perform auxiliary functions to support its main function.
26 Copying Use a simple or inexpensive replica to replace a more complex or expensive object or system, or use optical or mechanical copying methods.
27 Cheap Short-Living Objects Replace expensive, long-lasting objects with cheap, short-lived ones, or use disposable items when appropriate.
28 Replacement of Mechanical System Replace a mechanical system with an optical, acoustic, or sensory one, or use electric, magnetic, or electromagnetic fields to achieve a desired outcome.
29 Pneumatics and Hydraulics Replace solid parts of an object or system with gas or liquid ones, or use pneumatics or hydraulics to achieve a desired outcome.
30 Flexible Shells and Thin Films Replace solid structures with flexible shells or thin films, or use inflatable, collapsible, or foldable materials to achieve a desired outcome.
31 Porous Materials Make an object or system porous, or use porous materials to achieve a desired outcome.
32 Color Changes Change the color or transparency of an object or substance, or use color to improve or optimize a process.
33 Homogeneity Make an object or system homogeneous, or use uniform materials, conditions, or processes to achieve a desired outcome.
34 Discarding and Recovering Discard or recover parts of an object or system after use, or eliminate waste by recycling or reusing materials.
35 Parameter Changes Change the physical, chemical, or sensory parameters of an object or system, or use phase transitions to achieve a desired outcome.
36 Phase Transitions Use phase transitions, such as changes in temperature, pressure, or concentration, to achieve a desired outcome.
37 Thermal Expansion Use thermal expansion or contraction to perform a specific action, or use differences in the coefficients of thermal expansion to achieve a desired outcome.
38 Strong Oxidants Use strong oxidants, or introduce oxygen or air to achieve a desired outcome.
39 Inert Atmosphere Utilize an inert or non-reactive atmosphere, such as a vacuum, nitrogen, or argon, to prevent unwanted chemical reactions, preserve materials, or enhance process performance.
40 Composite Materials Use composite materials, or combine materials with different properties to achieve a desired outcome.
41 Adapting Fields Adapt the object or system to external fields, or change the properties of external fields to achieve a desired outcome.
42 Feedback Use feedback to adjust an object or system, or use self-regulation to achieve a desired outcome.
43 Redundancy Introduce redundancy or backup systems, or use parallel processing to achieve a desired outcome.
44 Self-Service Make an object or system self-serving, or use self-organization to achieve a desired outcome.

In conclusion, the 40 TRIZ principles offer a powerful and systematic approach to inventive problem-solving. By understanding and applying these principles, you can enhance your creative thinking and generate innovative solutions to complex problems. Keep this comprehensive guide handy as a reference for when you encounter challenges in your work or personal life, and watch as the principles of TRIZ help unlock your problem-solving potential.

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