Eight Disciplines (8D) Problem Solving
The 8D is a team-based, structured approach to problem-solving. The 8D approach aims to identify the root causes of the problem and take necessary actions so that the recurring problems are permanently resolved.
The US Government standardized the process of Corrective Actions in MIL-STD-1520 (Corrective Action and Disposition of Nonconforming Material). This standard was first issued in 1974, and the last revision of the standard was Rec C, which was issued in 1986 and later was cancelled in 1995 without replacement.
This problem-solving approach was later formalized and popularized by Ford Motors.
8D or Eight Disciplines
The eight disciplines or the eight steps of the problem-solving approach. Later a step zero was also added to the approach. These eight steps (and initial step zero) include these:
D0 - Preparation and Emergency Response
D1 - Establish the Team
D2 - Describe the Problem
D3 - Interim Containment Plan
D4 - Root Cause Analysis
D5 - Develop Permanent Corrective Actions
D6 - Implement Permanent Corrective Actions
D7 - Prevent Future Recurrence
D8 - Recognize Contributions (Individual and Team)