Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)

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Conventionally operator operates the machine, and maintenance maintains the machine. But the Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) is based on the idea that both operator and the maintenance are responsible for maintaining the machine.

Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) is based on the idea that everyone in a facility should participate in the maintenance and continually improve Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE).

Seiichi Nakajima developed Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) in Japan between 1950 and 1970, who is considered as the father of TPM. 

The goal of TPM is to increase the Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE).

What is OEE?

OEE is the multiplication of three factors: Availability, Performance and Quality.

Each of these three factors has two causes of loss. 

Three factors for OEE

Availability - the percentage of scheduled time that the operation is available to operate. Availability is often referred to as the uptime.

Performance - the speed at which the work center runs as a percentage of its designed speed.

Quality - Good units produced as a percentage of the total units started.

See the table below for the quick overview of these six types of losses that can reduce the overall equipment effectiveness.

Six types of losses




Unplanned stops / Equipment failure


Planned stops / Setup and adjustments


Small stops


Slow running


Production rejects


Startup rejects

Calculating OEE

Overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) = Availability x Performance x Quality    

 TPM Principles:

There are eight pillars of TPM. These eight principles are focused on proactive and preventive techniques for improving equipment reliability.

  1. Autonomous Maintenance
  2. Focused Improvement
  3. Planned Maintenance
  4. Quality management
  5. Early/equipment management
  6. Education and Training
  7. Administrative & office TPM
  8. Safety Health Environmental condition's

Total Productive Maintenance TPM

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