Principles of Management – POSDC Model
Management is the process of directing people to achieve organizational goals. It involves setting objectives, assigning responsibilities, monitoring progress toward those objectives, and evaluating results.
Managers are responsible for developing plans, policies, procedures, and systems that will help their organizations function effectively. They are also responsible for deciding how best to allocate scarce resources among competing demands.
A manager has many important duties, including:
• Planning - Developing strategies and tactics to meet the organization's needs.
• Leading - Directing others to carry out assigned tasks.
• Delegating - Assigning jobs to other employees.
• Controlling - Monitoring the performance of employees and ensuring they follow instructions.
• Organizing - Arranging work into logical steps.
• Allocating resources - Determining which activities should receive priority attention.
What do Managers do - Various Models/Frameworks?
The following models or frameworks can be used to describe what managers do.
- POLC Framework - Planning, Organizing, Leading and Controlling
- Luther Gullick proposed POSDCORB - Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing, Coordination, Reporting & Budgeting.
- Harold Koontz and Cyril O'Donnell proposed POSDC - Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing and Controlling.
Planning - Identify the problem or opportunity, set a goal, develop a strategy, create a plan, evaluate its effectiveness, determine the following action, control costs, monitor progress, make adjustments as necessary.
- It is the process of deciding in advance, what to do, when to do, how to do it (process) , and who should do it (responsibilities).
- This bridges the gap from where the organization is to where it wants to be.
Organizing - Establish priorities, assign responsibilities, establish rules, delegate authority, establish standards, ensure compliance with established rules, maintain records, communicate information, coordinate activities.
- It is the process of organizing resources and developing productive relationships amongst them to achieve organizational goals.
- Optimum use of resources to achieve the goal.
- This includes a grouping of tasks, assigning responsibilities, providing resources etc.
Staffing - Select qualified personnel, train them, supervise them, evaluate their performance, remove unsatisfactory workers.
- The primary purpose is to put the right person in the right place.
- This includes human resource planning, selection, recruitment, remuneration, transfer, appraisal & development of personnel.
Directing - Communicate directions, give orders, hold meetings, negotiate agreements, direct subordinates.
- This includes influencing, guiding, supervising, communicating, and motivating subordinates to achieve organizational goals.
Controlling - Monitor performance, review reports, evaluate results, correct errors, change direction if needed.
- Controlling is the process of checking if progress is being made towards the goals and acting, if necessary, to correct any deviation.